Nurturing Parenting Program – Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers

Categories

Categories associated with best practice:

  • Health Equity
  • PP-icon1
  • Illegal Drugs Icon 3
  • Infancy (ages 0-2) icon
  • Early Childhood (ages 3-5) icon
  • Adult (ages 25-64) icon
  • Alcohol Abuse Icon 1
  • Community/ Neighbourhood
  • daycare
  • Healthy child development
  • Home
  • Maternal and Infant Health
  • Mental Health Icon 2
  • Personal health practices and coping skills

Determinants of Health: Personal health practices and coping skills, Healthy child development, Other

Overview

The Nurturing Parenting Programs are a family-centered trauma-informed initiative designed to build nurturing parenting skills as an alternative to abusive and neglecting parenting and child-rearing practices. The long term goals are to prevent recidivism in families receiving social services, lower the rate of multi-parent teenage pregnancies, reduce the rate of juvenile delinquency and alcohol abuse, and stop the intergenerational cycle of child abuse by teaching positive parenting behaviors. The Nurturing Programs target all families at risk for abuse and neglect with children birth to 18 years and include primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary (treatment) programming.

The Nurturing Parenting Program (NPP) for Parents and their Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers (birth to 5 years) was developed to help families who have been identified by child welfare agencies for past child abuse and neglect or who are at high risk for child abuse and neglect.

There are two components of the program – the group base program contains 27 sessions each lasting 2.5 hours. Parents and children meet concurrently in two separate groups. Two facilitators run parents’ group; two facilitators plus two volunteers run the children’s group. Parents and children engage in a 30-minute Nurturing Time with games, songs, snacks and more.

The home base program contains 55 sessions each 90 minutes in length. Parents, children and the Home Visitor work together for 30 minutes having fun and practicing skills. Parents and the Home Visitor work together for the first hour teaching nurturing parenting ideas and techniques.

A large number of evaluations of the Parents and their Infants, Toddler and Preschoolers program have consistently demonstrated positive impacts on parenting attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviours, child abuse and neglect, children’s behaviour and attitudes toward parenting and family interactions.

Primary Source Document

Bavolek SJ, The Nurturing Parenting Programs. Justice Bulletin (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention)

Contact information of developer(s) and/or implementer(s)

Stephen J. Bavolek, Ph.D.

Family Nurturing Center - Main Office

Asheville, North Carolina

(262) 652.6501

Email

Author, Nurturing Parenting Programs

Intervention Focus

Intervention Goal / ObjectiveLevel(s) TargetedEquity Focus
Reduce the rate of recidivism in families receiving social services (long-term objective)
  • Individual level
  • Interpersonal level
People living in conditions of disadvantage are not explicitly stated to be a target population of the intervention.
Reduce the rate of alcohol abuse in high-risk families (long-term objective)
  • Individual level
  • Interpersonal level
People living in conditions of disadvantage are explicitly stated to be a target population of the intervention.
Reduce the rate of juvenile delinquency among high-risk youth (long-term objective)
  • Individual level
  • Interpersonal level
People living in conditions of disadvantage are explicitly stated to be a target population of the intervention.
Stop the intergenerational cycle of child abuse in families by building nurturing parenting skills (long-term objective)
  • Individual level
  • Interpersonal level
People living in conditions of disadvantage are explicitly stated to be a target population of the intervention.
Teach family members to promote healthy physical and emotional development for themselves and others (intermediate objective)
  • Individual level
  • Interpersonal level
People living in conditions of disadvantage are explicitly stated to be a target population of the intervention.
Increase communication, expressiveness family support and cohesion within the family (intermediate objective)
  • Individual level
  • Interpersonal level
People living in conditions of disadvantage are explicitly stated to be a target population of the intervention.
Help parents substitute nurturing behaviors for abusive ones (intermediate objective)
  • Individual level
  • Interpersonal level
People living in conditions of disadvantage are explicitly stated to be a target population of the intervention.
Increase family members’ awareness of their own and each other’s needs, strengths, and weaknesses (intermediate objective)
  • Individual level
  • Interpersonal level
People living in conditions of disadvantage are explicitly stated to be a target population of the intervention.
Lower the rate of multiple pregnancies among teenage girls (long-term objective)
  • Individual level
People living in conditions of disadvantage are explicitly stated to be a target population of the intervention.
Develop positive self-concept and self-esteem in all family members (intermediate objective)
  • Individual level
People living in conditions of disadvantage are explicitly stated to be a target population of the intervention.

Health Issue(s) that is/are addressed by the Intervention

Health Promotion

  • Maternal and Infant Health
  • Mental Health

Risk Reduction

  • Prevent/reduce alcohol use/abuse
  • Prevent/reduce illegal drug use/abuse
  • Prevent/reduce misuse of medications
  • Prevent injury
  • Prevent violence

Specific Activities of the Intervention

  • Educational health information offered
  • Group process/program
  • Other training session
  • Provision of planning tools and evaluation tools
  • Other

Priority/Target Population for Intervention Delivery

Life Stage

  • Infancy (birth to 2 years)
  • Early childhood (age 3-5 years)
  • Youth (age 13-18 years)
  • Young adult (age 19-24 years)
  • Adults (age 25-64 years)

Settings

Educational Settings

  • Early learning environment (ages 0-5)

Community Setting

  • Home
  • Community/neighbourhood
  • Other

Outcomes

Outcomes and Impact Chart
Level of ImpactDescription of OutcomeEquity Focus
Individual LevelThere was a significant positive improvement in Oppressing Children’s Power and Independence subscale from pre- to post-test (percent change: 0.03, effect size = 0.29, p<.001).Outcomes reported for people living in conditions of disadvantage are compared to outcomes for people living in more advantaged conditions.
Individual LevelThere was a significant positive improvement in the Parent-Child Role Reversal subscale from pre- to post-test (percent change: 0.03, effect size = 0.20, p<.001). Being female or having a partner meant greater positive change in scores on this subscale; difference scores for females, on average, were 1.70 points higher than for males, and difference scores for those with partners were 1.19 points higher than for those without partners. Extent of parent participation was a factor in explaining differences in scores as well. Those who participated in at least 14 out of 16 weeks of sessions (either group and/or home sessions) had greater gains (by 1.06 points on average) than those who did not.Outcomes reported for people living in conditions of disadvantage are compared to outcomes for people living in more advantaged conditions.
Individual LevelThere was a significant positive improvement in the Strong Belief in the Use and Value of Corporal Punishment subscale from pre- to post-test (percent change: 0.09, effect size = 0.67, p<.001).Outcomes reported for people living in conditions of disadvantage are compared to outcomes for people living in more advantaged conditions.
Individual LevelThere was a significant positive improvement in the Inappropriate Parental Expectations subscale from pre- to post-test (percent change: 0.06, effect size = 0.45, p<.001). Outcomes reported for people living in conditions of disadvantage are compared to outcomes for people living in more advantaged conditions.
Individual LevelThere was a significant positive improvement in the Parental Lack of an Empathic Awareness of Children’s Needs subscale from pre- to post-test (percent change: 0.09, effect size = 0.71, p<.001). The higher the participant’s income and the more children participated, the greater the gains in empathy. For every $1000 dollars of increase in income, on average there was a 0.09 point increase in change in the subscale For each additional session a child participates in, there was a 0.14 point positive increase in change in attitudes about empathic awareness of children’s needs.Outcomes reported for people living in conditions of disadvantage are compared to outcomes for people living in more advantaged conditions.

Adaptability

Implementation History

  • Multiple implementations - Different settings/populations/providers - The intervention showed significant adaptability as it has been implemented in different settings or with different populations or by different provider(s). This can include multiple implementations during the same time period. Each implementation of the intervention must have been substantially the same and must have demonstrated positive results for the primary objectives of the intervention.

Expertise Required for Implementation within the Context of the Intervention

  • Requires specialized skills that are easily available within the context - The intervention requires the participation of personnel with advanced skills (e.g. medical doctors, epidemiologists, social workers) but that are easily available within the intervention context.

Are there supports available for implementation

Yes. Facilitator training and Training for Trainers program

Are there resources and/or products associated with the interventions

Yes. Program manuals, resource materials, DVDs and CDs; games; assessments and evaluations; instructional aids; certificates of completion