Football Fans In Training (FFIT)

Intervention URL: Football Fans In Training (FFIT) Website Address

Is this intervention, program or initiative part of a larger intervention, program or initiative?: Yes

Is this intervention, program or initiative funded by the Public Health Agency of Canada?: No/no mention

I. Basic Information

Primary Source Document

Type of Publication: Peer-reviewed journal

Author(s)/Contributor(s): CM Gray, K Hunt, N Mutrie, AS Anderson, J Leishman, L Dalgarno, S Wyke

Document Title: Football Fans in Training: the development and optimization of an intervention delivered through professional sports clubs to help men lose weight, become more active and adopt healthier eating habits.

Publication or Source: BioMed Central (BMC) public health 2013 13:232

URL of Publication or Source: http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-13-232

Date of Primary Source Document: 2013-01-01

Language(s):

Keywords: Health promotion/methods; healthy people programs/methods; overweight/prevention & control; soccer; weight loss/physiology

Web Links

To additional Web site information about the intervention:
NIHR Public Health Research; http://www.nets.nihr.ac.uk/projects/phr/09301006

To additional reports about the intervention:

Wyke S, Gray C, Anderson A, Brady A, Bunn C, Donan P, Fenwick E, Grieve E, Leishman J, Miller E, Mutrie N, Rauchhaus P, Treweek S, White A, Hunt K. gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. The Lancet2014;(13)62420-4.

Gray CM, Hunt K, Mutrie N, Anderson AS, Treweek S, Wyke S. Weight management for overweight and obese men delivered through professional football clubs: a pilot randomized trial: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity2013; 10:121.

Hunt K, Gray C, Maclean A, Smillie S, Bunn C, Wyke S. Do weight management programmes delivered at professional football clubs attract and engage high risk men? A mixed-methods study. BMC Public Health2014; 14:50.

Trueland, J. Helping fans to get fit Nursing Standard 2014; 24-25; 28.

Hunt K, McCann C, Gray CM , Mutrie N, Wyke S “You've got to walk before you run”: positive evaluations of a walking program as part of a gender sensitized, weight-management program delivered to men through professional football clubs: Health Psychology2013; 32(1): 57-65.

Wyke S. PHR Protocol Football Fans in Training (FIT): a randomized controlled trial of a gender-sensitive weight loss and healthy living programme delivered to men aged 35-65 by Scottish Premier League (SPL) football clubs. NIHR Public Health Research Programme2012.

Gray, C. M., Hunt, K., Mutrie, N., Anderson, A. S., Treweek, S., & Wyke, S. Weight management for overweight and obese men delivered through professional football clubs: a pilot randomized trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity2013; 10:121

Type of Practice

Best Practice

II. Intervention Focus

Intervention Goal / ObjectiveLevel(s) TargetedEquity Focus
The initial outcome measure for the analysis was the number of men achieving and maintaining the 5% weight reduction in 12 months.
  • Individual level

Priority/Target Population for Intervention Delivery

Sex

Life Stage

Health Issue(s) that is/are addressed by the Intervention

Disease Prevention

Health Promotion

Risk Reduction

III. Intervention Context

Geographic Level of Intervention

Settings

Other Community Settings

IV. Social Determinants of Health Focus

Determinants of Health Focus

Gender Sensitivity

Programme is designed and delivered only to men, targetting males with gender-appropriate activities, approaches, and setting.

V. Health Promotion Values, Theories, Strategies and Activities

Values Inherent in the Intervention

Theories/Conceptual Frameworks

Use of Health Promotion Theories

Type of Health Promotion Strategy

Specific Activities of the Intervention

VI. Intervention Outcomes

Outcomes

Long-term positive outcome(s) - Intervention demonstrated long-term positive outcome(s) that were related to the primary objective(s) and persisted one year more beyond the intervention period.

Magnitude of Impact

Moderate Impact - Intervention resulted in positive outcomes for a small but significant sample (69%-50%) of the sample of the target population for which the intervention was designed.

Ongoing results from research and evaluation were collected and acted on?

Yes. Pilot intervention results, including process evaluation, were used to refine and develop the intervention tested in the full trial.

Outcomes and Impact

Outcomes and Impact Chart
Level of ImpactDescription of OutcomeEquity Focus
Societal Level

FFIT succeeded in reaching high-risk men who were not attracted to other weight management programmes and at high risk of future disease.

Reported outcomes do not distinguish findings specific to people living in conditions of disadvantage.
Organizational Level

The programme was inexpensive to deliver and was cost-effective.

Reported outcomes do not distinguish findings specific to people living in conditions of disadvantage.
Individual Level

Health and Behaviour Outcomes – Evidence provided regarding: Weight loss (4.36%), BMI reduction, waist circumference, body fat %, BP, all significantly in favour of the intervention group; self-reported PA, alcohol reduction, and dietary changes, all significantly in favour of intervention group; psychological and quality of life outcomes positive in favour of intervention group.

Reported outcomes do not distinguish findings specific to people living in conditions of disadvantage.

Strengths of the Intervention

VII. Adaptation

Implementation History

Multiple implementations - Different settings/populations/providers - The intervention showed significant adaptability as it has been implemented in different settings or with different populations or by different provider(s). This can include multiple implementations during the same time period. Each implementation of the intervention must have been substantially the same and must have demonstrated positive results for the primary objectives of the intervention.

Expertise Required for Implementation Within the Context of the Intervention

Specialized skills training provided as part of the Intervention - The intervention does not require individuals or groups with highly specialized training, but requires that individuals or groups be trained as part of the implementation of the intervention.

Do the results indicate that the intervention can be generalized to the general target population?

Yes

FFIT was specifically designed with few exclusion criteria to increase generalizability; it can be applied to other contexts related to soccer and professional sports clubs.

Has this intervention been replicated or adapted from or to another jurisdiction?

Replication specified:

The original intervention was a pilot in two football clubs; the full pragmatic trial was delivered in 13 clubs. Best implemented for young or adult males who are fans of various organized professional sports (e.g. football, soccer, hockey), with support from the professional sports franchises.

Is the intervention ongoing or complete?: Ongoing, Duration to date - 3 years.

Are there supports available for implementation?
Yes - Supports were available in Scotland at the time of the intervention

Are there resources and/or products associated with the interventions?
Yes - Resources published during the project can be accessed at http://www.ffit.org.uk/page1/index.html

Developers/Implementers of the Intervention

Led by university researchers (lead investigator: S. Wyke), the first iteration of the intervention was developed by an expert multidisciplinary working group (professional disciplines include psychologist, health social scientist, gender and health, nutritionist, men's health nursing) and a football league trust representative. After the pilot, the intervention was refined by the researchers, with input from participants and community coaches.

Type of funding used to develop/implement the intervention

Other resources used to develop/implement the intervention

Duration/Timing for Implementation

Time used to develop the intervention: Insufficient information available to estimate.

Time used to implement the intervention: 12-week program with follow-up over 9 months

Time used to evaluate the intervention: 12 months

VIII. Quality and Type of Evidence

Type of Publication: Peer-reviewed journal

Author(s)/Contributor(s): K Hunt, S Wyke, CM Gray, SA Anderson, A Brady, C Bunn, PT Donnan, E Fenwick, E Grieve, J Leishman, E Miller, N Mutrie, P Rauchhaus, A White, S Treweek

Document Title: A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

Publication or Source: A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled

URL of Publication or Source: http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(13)62420-4.pdf

Date of Primary Source Document: 2014-04-14

Language:

Stakeholder Information Sources (in the Evaluation Study)

Who conducted the evaluation?

Academic institution: The National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research Programme

Research protocol was reviewed by an ethics committee and/or included a set of ethical guidelines: Yes, UK ESRC Framework for Research Ethics: http://www.esrc.ac.uk/funding/guidance-for-applicants/research-ethics/

Research Limitations

Limitations identified by authors: Possible contamination of control group through informal communication within each site or information during recruitment activities; possible baseline measures influenced by men already motivated to lose weight being recruited. Note that these limitations "suggest that the difference in weight loss between the groups is a conservative estimate of what the FITT programme can deliver." (Hunt 2014, p.8)

Nature of Processes

Quality assurance methods were used: Yes, Fieldworkers take measurements blinded to assignment; multiple articles published in peer reviewed publications; funding by national health programme.

Evaluation Study Design

Quantitative Study: Experimental Design, Randomized Control Trial

Experimental Design, Randomized Control Trial

Sample: The people assigned to the experimental group(s) have similar characteristics as those in the control group(s). (E.g. they were similar in age or experience or gender or education, etc.) - Yes

Measures: The outcome measures were objective (e.g. biochemically validated nicotine levels) or tangible (e.g. number of cigarettes smoked per day) - Yes

At least one of the outcome measures were validated (e.g. against a gold-standard measure, assessed for reliability, content validity, or based on previous population surveys or measurement studies) - Yes

Blinding: No/no mention

Data Collection: The data was collected in the same way for both intervention and control groups - Yes

Loss to Follow-up: The participants (intervention and control groups) were followed for roughly the same time - Yes

If there were different follow-up times, adjustments were made to allow for different follow-up times. (E.g. used a conversion like person-years) - No/no mention

Loss to Follow-up: More than 80% of the participants completed both pre- and post-intervention data collection points (loss to follow-up less than 20%) - Yes

There was an equal number of participants who were lost to the post-intervention data collection among both intervention and control groups - No/no mention

Analysis - Groups Differences: In the analyses, there were attempts to identify and control/adjust for the differences between the intervention and control groups (e.g. characteristics such as age, gender, education, etc.).

Results - Group Differences: There were significant positive differences between intervention and control group results. - Yes